Proposal to improve technology usage of youth and children

Context

Reference to a current Michigan bill or law that relates in some way to your proposal:

Current State of Michigan law regarding high school graduation requirements:

A bill to amend 1976 PA 451, entitled "The revised school code," by amending section 1278a (MCL 380.1278a), as amended by 2015 PA 186.

A pupil may 10 complete algebra II over 2 years with 2 credits awarded or over 1.5 11 years with 1.5 credits awarded for the purposes of this section and 12 section 1278b. A pupil also may partially or fully fulfill the 13 algebra II requirement by completing a department-approved formal 14 career and technical education program or curriculum, such as a 15 program or curriculum in electronics, machining, construction, 16 welding, engineering, computer science, or renewable energy, and in 17 that program or curriculum successfully completing the same content 18 as the algebra II benchmarks assessed on the department-prescribed 19 state high school assessment, as determined by the department.

Why this proposal will make a difference in the lives of students of all ages across Michigan, or a significant subgroup (by age, background, economic status, and/or region, etc.) of students in Michigan:

This proposal will make a large difference in the lives of K-12 students and children all across Michigan, and hopefully impact the future career choices of Michigan students. With the computer science field and technology industry booming, it is essential for Michigan youth to be educated in this field and know about the potential career choices at an early age. I came to the university without taking a computer science class and since it was mandatory for engineers to take, I took an intro to computer science course and loved the course. It is essential for children and students to gain exposure to this field at an earlier age so they can shape their career from the start. A computer science or user interface design course should be mandatory to expose children to this field so they know whether or not it is viable career choice for them.

How and where did you learn about the issues underlying your proposal?

I learned about the issues underlying in my proposal this last year in classes, when I volunteered at a high school for one of my courses, and throughout this semester while posting for the EDUC 362 course. I first learned about the lack of awareness of computer science/computing courses in high schools when I volunteered at a local high school in Ann Arbor two semesters ago. Being a computer science minor myself, students would oftentimes ask me what my major was and I would in return ask students about the field and industry and whether they were interested in it. Many had not considered that field as they had no exposure to it, and did not know that there were separate computer science programs outside of engineering. I asked teachers at the high school about computer science classes, and they said that there was one course offered as an elective, however it did not dive very deep into any computer programming or computer science. It was more so a class on how to create websites.

Furthermore, I learned about the lack of computer science courses available for high school students around the United States in my computer science courses that I was taking at the University of Michigan this past semester. In Michigan specifically, it is abysmal that only 71 high schools even offer AP Computer Science. I learned in my course this past semester that 40% of grade schools teach computer programming in the United States. This number seemed abnormally small to me, considering how much I heard about the field once I came to college. I expanded my knowledge about the issues underlying my proposal while posting for this course, as some discussion items in K-12 education revolved around STEM majors, computer science programs, and lack of females in these fields/industries. It challenged some of my thoughts and allowed me to fully understand where the issues rooted from when it came to lack of computer science/STEM majors in the state of Michigan.

How has your service activity influenced your thinking about this proposal?

My service activity consisted of volunteering at an elementary school as a read to succeed volunteer and in inner-city Detroit as a community partner. My volunteering experiences taught me a lot about Michigan’s current education system from a very different and unique perspective. I initially went into my service activities wanting to look for ways children were overusing technology, and whether it was inhibiting their education. Once I changed the scope and lens of my proposal to increasing awareness of technology/implementing computer science programs to grade schools, I changed my perspective during these service activities to observe changes and potential impact in the education system. At the elementary school, I was able to speak with the classroom teacher about what she thought in proposed changes to school curriculum to eventually include computer courses at all grade levels, and she was extremely enthusiastic at the idea. She mentioned how she would read about computer science and new advancements in the technology field outside of school, but thought about how her kids were not getting exposure to this booming industry and field in the way that she was. It made me realize how important it is and how influential a change in curriculum could affect all children of Michigan.

Link to your media artifact(s) giving background on the issue:

Media Artifact 1 - Infographic on technology usage with children

Media Artifact 2 - Infographic on effects of increased technology usage with children

Consultations

Talk directly with at least 3 real live people who have special knowledge about this topic or the impact your proposal would have, and summarize their comments. These may include people appearing in your media artifact (video, podcast, etc.).

CONSULTATION 1: Sajan Patel, strategy consultant in the public sector industry – specifically social services, law enforcement and education

I spoke with Sajan Patel, who has been a strategy consultant for three years in the public sector industry, specifically in social services, law enforcement and education. He has advised government authorities, public institutions, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in core areas of public administration. I first asked Sajan about his work specifically, to see how it could pertain to my proposal. He explained that his work covers the development of policy, the provision of financial support, and the delivery of services to citizens with respect to education, social services, and law enforcement. It was very interesting to hear specific projects that he had worked on, and he explained how funding was always a key area of focus and struggle when he would consult those who were introducing new laws or bills to legislation, especially related to education. He explained the process of development of policy, which was helpful for me to visualize how I was going to successfully create my proposal. I next explained to Sajan what EDUC 362 entailed, and how my proposal was aiming to make computer science a mandatory requirement for high school graduation in the state of Michigan. He appreciated my passion and thought in the proposal, but brought up great counterarguments. I thought the proposal body would be very easy to create, and I also thought there would be minimal funding associated with this kind of amendment. He challenged me to think about how I would obtain teachers to be certified in teaching computer science, and how I would change certification requirements for them. He challenged me to think about the funding behind changed certification requirements, and to create a set path for how I want computer science to become a mandatory high school requirement. Using his advice and ideas, I incorporated a state plan for K-12 computer science in Michigan over a few years rather than simply making it a mandatory high school requirement, as that is infeasible to do so suddenly.

CONSULTATION 2: Vidya Sekhar, senior project manager at Microsoft

I spoke with Vidya Sekhar, who is currently a senior project manager at Microsoft in Seattle and a good family friend. Vidya is a certified PMP, CISSP with over 20 years experience. She is a senior security program management for Microsoft's Windows and Devices Group Services Security team. Previously, she was a co-author of the Microsoft Security Intelligence Report v14, v15 and v16, while working for the Microsoft Malware Protection Center (MMPC). She was super helpful to talk to, as she was involved with Microsoft’s initiative to make computer science mandatory for high schools in Chicago, so she provided me with very helpful insight. She explained to me the potential that the technology industry has. Given the growing adaption to futuristic technology - the augmented reality and virtual reality market is predicted to reach $162 billion by 2020 - it is important to teach this curriculum in an interdisciplinary and applied approach from a young age so individuals are well equipped for the real world. Being a female in the STEM industry herself, she was very passionate about the idea of educating children at a younger age about the field. She gave me insight on how Chicago made computer science mandatory, and provided me with additional sources and links that I could use from Chicago’s legislation bill to shape my proposal. She told me to start small, perhaps with an amendment to Michigan high school’s current graduation requirements that would allow computer science to count for a core course requirement rather than an elective, and go from there. She explained that for Chicago’s high school requirement, it first started with small computer science amendments so it wasn’t as much of a shock in legislation, and how there were already a good amount of teachers certified to teach computer science. I have incorporated her advice and ideas into my proposal.

CONSULTATION 3: Christian Casper, professor at University of Michigan

I met with Christian Casper, who was one of my engineering professors my freshman year for ENGR 100: Biotechnology and Human Values. He also was my research mentor for my engineering research project. I knew I wanted one of my consultations to be a professor to get their take on changing curriculum, so I was very excited to get time with him. He explained to me how it wouldn’t be as easy as I thought to make computer science a mandatory graduation requirement. He told me how legislation is currently set up and how making computer programming a core requirement would have to be at the expense of another core course currently. It is hard to think about what computer science could replace, as English, math, science etc.are vital courses/knowledge needed to graduate high school. He encouraged me to do additional research on current high school curriculum in the state of Michigan, and see how I would want to rearrange it or restructure it to incorporate some sort of computer science course. He gave me additional resources on other laws and bills that modified high school curriculum, and provided me with insight on how Michigan’s education system is currently set up. He was very helpful in narrowing down the scope of my proposal even more to address main concerns of lack of computer science courses in Michigan.

 

Prospectus:

Describe the specific issue or problem, being sure to provide sufficient context so that someone less familiar with the issue has a sense of the bigger picture, but know that your focus here is on a more detailed spelling out of the specific problem or issue that you’ve identified. (250 words minimum)

            A critical issue in this day and age, throughout the world, is the human population’s growing addiction to technology. According to Neilsen’s Total Audience Research Report in 2016, Americans specifically spend 11+ hours a day on electronic media, which has increased by 4 hours a day over the last 5 years. A 2015 Kaiser Foundation study shows that elementary aged children use on average 7.5 hours per day of entertainment technology, and that 1 in 3 parents say they have had concerns or questions about their child’s technology use in the past year.

            In Michigan specifically, studies have shown that children and youth spend 4-5 times more than the recommended technology usage for children of 1-2 hours of screen time per day by the American Academy of Pediatrics. This not only has detrimental effects to children’s health mentally, but physically and developmentally as well. 32.6% of children are obese in Michigan, which is 1.3% above the national average according to the NIHCM Foundation. Researchers at the American College of Cardiology found that kids who spent more time in front of a screen snacked more often and ate fewer healthy snacks than children who used technology less frequently. In addition to harmful physical effects, children are being affected by an increase in technology mentally and developmentally. According to the i-Safe Foundation, over half of adolescents and teens have been bullied online, about the same number have engaged in cyber bullying, and more than 1 in 3 children between the age of 8 and 18 have experienced cyberthreats online. Furthermore, children’s sensory skill development is being put at risk through overuse of technology, as they now rely on it for the majority of their leisure. This grossly limits other challenges to their bodies that are required to achieve optimal sensory and motor development.

            While the scope of increased technology usage seems fairly large, one area I believe Michigan grade schools lack in is teaching its children and youth about technology, detrimental effects of increased technology use, and the growing technology industry sector. Given the growing adaption to futuristic technology - the augmented reality and virtual reality market is predicted to reach $162 billion by 2020 - it is important to teach this curriculum in an interdisciplinary and applied approach from a young age so individuals are well equipped for the real world. Computing occupations are the number 1 source of all new wages in the U.S. and make up two-thirds of all projected new jobs in STEM fields. However, given these large statistics, only 962 high school students in Michigan took the AP Computer Science exam in 2016. Only 71 schools in Michigan offered AP Computer Science in 2015-2016. This is an abnormally small number, given the booming field and booming future of the field. This is something I believe needs to change for Michigan students. A change in how Michigan grade schools teach their children and youth about technology and the technology industry in their childhood could impact how children’s health is affected by technology, and how they can become leaders in the booming field. 

Potential Solutions:

Describe three reasonable, feasible potential solutions or approaches that would help address this problem.

SOLUTION 1: 

My first solution is to make computer science a mandatory graduation requirement for all high school students. Since children in Michigan are overusing their technology by 4-5x the recommended amount, and spend 7.5 hours a day on entertainment technology on average, it is important to change how they are using their technology to best benefit them. Teaching them about computer science will eliminate the developmental effects of overusing technology, as their brain will remain active, and will expand other challenges to their bodies that are required to achieve optimal sensory and motor development. It could also potentially solve the problem of Michigan K-12 students not being exposed to STEM fields at an early age. Only 71 high schools currently offer AP Computer Science today.

https://code.org/advocacy/state-facts/MI.pdf

SOLUTION 2:

Another solution is to create technology awareness classes as part of K-12 health curriculum, or as a mandatory part of parent teacher organizations across Michigan. This way, students will know how to use their technology in a healthy way, and the potential detrimental effects of overusing technology. A problem with how children are using technology today is that many children and parents are simply unaware of the effects of technology, physically and mentally. Implementing a 1 hour discussion in parent teacher organizations or for principal’s to talk about to parents could increase awareness, and can allow for roundtable discussions of how communities/families can better engage their children instead of family iPhones or iPads. A technology awareness class in school curriculum could raise awareness for children themselves to take a step back from technology.

SOLUTION 3:

Finally, a solution related to the mental effects of technology, specifically cyberbullying, is to create an explicit law against cyberbullying. With over half of adolescents stating they have engaged in cyberbullying and also half have experienced cyberbullying, it is time to increase awareness and take a stance to stop or limit it from occurring. This has tremendous effects on children’s mental health, and can cause depression; therefore it is up to Michigan legislation to limit the occurrence of cyberbullying. With the technology industry/futuristic technology moving so rapidly, it is at the forefront of children’s attention. It’s important that children know to use the technology in a positive manner.

Reaction or advice from a Topic Coordinator:

You must solicit a critique from a topic coordinator, and explain the impact that advice has had on the final draft of this proposal.

After receiving comments from Kayla Schwartz, I focused on narrowing down my scope to Michigan-specific problems rather than nationwide problems. After further comments from Jonah Folbe, he enjoyed the unique angle that my proposal was taking especially from the wide scope at the beginning. Jonah mentioned how he liked my idea of changing how children use technology than trying to eradicate it. He mentioned that this way of thinking will be much more effective in getting a proposal to the Michigan legislature. He explained how he thought mandatory computer science for children is a definite must in today’s day and age. Teaching children the thought process and language of coding will severely increase their brains expand into different subject areas. He brought up a great point about how there might be studies on this that can be used for evidence to support my proposal. This could link back the education in computer science to improved health benefits for children in Michigan.

 

Research process:

Describe your research process — indicate who you talked to (including but not limited to consultants), what you read, what your thinking was, how it changed over time, and how your consultants changed your thinking. This description of your research process definitely could include “dead ends,” or ideas you had that didn’t ultimately bear fruit.  In short, we want to know what you did and how it led to your legislation, and we also want you to give us a window into your thought process.

As seen in my media artifact, the scope of my initial problem that I wanted to solve was fairly large. Technology usage, especially with the millennial generation, is growing at an exponential rate. While there are many upsides to technology, this alarming increase also has several detrimental effects to humans – physically, mentally, and developmentally. There is a direct relationship between obesity and screen time of children, while the state of Michigan has also seen a steep increase in cyberbullying.

Initially, I wanted to find a way to decrease technology usage across students, but I realized that was an infeasible solution as the Michigan government does not like to get involved in personal choice mandates and creating school programs for education. It would be very difficult to introduce legislation that combats children overusing their technology from a federal government level. I wanted to link childhood obesity to technology to see if there was a way children could better use their technology. I narrowed the scope from decreasing technology to creating a solution that would increase awareness for the problem, and realized that children are not educated at an early age on how to use technology correctly and properly. This led me to go in a direction that creates more awareness and education for computer science at an earlier age for students. Since Michigan has such low computer science graduates and schools that even offer computer science, I want to propose legislation that can raise awareness for how this is a booming industry and how children/students should be interested in this field/industry at an earlier age. That way, children may waste less time on technology entertainment media and more time being constructive or coding. I want to focus on changing how children use their technology rather than eradicating it entirely, as it does not seem practical or reasonable to do that. This can hopefully increase awareness of the growing technology usage rates.

Michigan currently has no state plan for K-12 computer science, so I did additional research and created a solution based off of legislation in Illinois (specifically Chicago), who last year made computer science a high school requirement. My consultants consisted of a strategy consultant in the private sector, a project manager at Microsoft, and a professor at the University of Michigan who helped me shape the feasibility of my solution and narrow down the scope further in terms of what I wanted my specific legislation to entail. The consultations allowed me to consider several factors that had not crossed my mind before, such as funding for computer science programs, getting teachers to complete additional certification requirements to teach computer science, and determining where computer science would fit in with current high school graduation core requirements.

 

Author contributions:

Please delineate--in detail--who made what contributions to the process and to the finished proposal? Who took on which responsibilities in researching ideas, drafting language, etc.?

Since I was the only author of my proposal, I made all contributions to the process and to the finished proposal. I took on all responsibilities in researching ideas, drafting language, engaging in consultations, and narrowing down my scope. It was very helpful to meet with Jeff Stanzler, who helped me redefine my scope tremendously. We were able to determine two major paths I could take with my proposal, and eventually were able to pick one that best suited this course and the vision for Michigan legislation.

My consultations also helped me come up with specific ideas such as a set plan for implementing computer science programs into grade schools, and the many different factors that go behind it such as funding, redistributing core requirements for high school, and changing teacher certifications.
 

===FORMAL PROPOSAL===

The sections below should comprise your final proposal language, submitted for consideration by your peers and potential inclusion in the MSC Platform.

Preambulatory clauses

These set up the PROBLEM, but not the solution.

WHEREAS....Computing occupations are the number 1 source of all new wages in the U.S. and make up two-thirds of all projected new jobs in STEM fields.

WHEREAS....Computer science drives job growth and innovation throughout our economy and society.

WHEREAS…71% of new STEM jobs are in computing.

WHEREAS....Computing is used all around us and in virtually every field - it’s foundational knowledge that all students need.

WHEREAS…Fewer than half of U.S. schools offer any computer science courses and only 8% of STEM graduates study it.

WHEREAS…Michigan had only 1,793 computer science graduates in 2015.

WHERAS…Only 962 high school students in Michigan took the AP Computer Science exam in 2016.

WHEREAS…Only 71 schools in Michigan even offer AP Computer Science in 2015-2016.

WHEREAS…Michigan has not yet created a state plan for K-12 computer science.

(Add more "Whereas" clauses if necessary.)

Operative clauses

These describe in detail, the solution you are proposing (not the problem itself; those should go in the "Whereas" clauses above).

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED....

1. Michigan should make computer science a mandatory graduation requirement for all high school graduates. A set path I define for state legislatures to take is:

a) The state legislature can start with a clear state plan for K-12 computer science

b) Define computer science and establish rigorous K-12 computer science standards

c) Allocate funding for rigorous computer science teacher professional learning and course support

d) Implement clear certification pathways for computer science teachers

e) Create programs at institutions of higher education to offer computer science to pre-service teachers

f) Require that all secondary schools offer computer science with appropriate implementation timelines

g) Allow computer science to satisfy a core graduation requirement

g) Allow computer science to satisfy an admission requirement at institutions of higher education

2. One way to amend the school code is to modify certain requirements to include computer science as an option. For example: one of the 3 years of mathematics that a pupil must successfully complete as a prerequisite to receiving a high school diploma may be an Advanced Placement computer science course. One of the 2 years of science that a pupil must successfully complete as a prerequisite to receiving a high school diploma may be an Advanced Placement computer science course. If a school district offers an Advanced Placement computer science course to high school students, then the school board must designate that course as equivalent to a high school mathematics or science course and must denote on the student's transcript that the Advanced Placement computer science course qualifies as a mathematics-based, quantitative course for students. A pupil must still successfully complete Algebra II or an integrated mathematics course with Algebra II content in order for one of the 3 years of mathematics to be an Advanced Placement computer science course. This could be one possible amendment to Michigan’s current core high school graduation requirements, and it is based off of one of Illinois’ bills on change in high school core requirements.

3. Because computer science courses are often electives, there is a lack of funding for professional learning and staffing support at the district level for teachers. Michigan should provide resources for professional learning to prepare in-service teachers from diverse backgrounds to teach K-12 computer science. Funding priority should be given to districts in which a demonstrable effort will be made to engage underrepresented groups. This will expand the capacity for in-service teachers and motivate pre-service teachers to pursue teaching computer science.

4. The computer science teacher shortage should be addressed by exposing more pre-service teachers to computer science during their required coursework or by creating specific pathways for computer science teachers. Students preparing to be mathematics, science or broader technology teachers could become computer science teachers in many states if they were exposed to relatively minimal computer science coursework within teacher preparation programs. To meet this goal, states could create scholarship programs for pre-service teachers to take computer science courses as part of the teacher preparation pathway. Further, states could create funding incentives for pre-service education programs to create pathways in computer science education. Finally, with reforms to state certification programs for computer science teachers, states should expand computer science preparation programs at schools of education. In addition, to address equity concerns, states should fund partnership opportunities between local school districts and schools of education to create direct pathways for teachers into high-need school districts.

5. Currently, only 32 states and DC have clear, publicly accessible policies allowing rigorous computer science courses to satisfy existing core high school graduation requirements. Computer science should be a flex credit that can substitute for a core requirement. States that count computer science as a core graduation requirement see 50% more enrollment in their AP Computer Science courses and increased participation from underrepresented minorities.

6. Admission policies for most colleges and universities do not include rigorous computer science courses as meeting the mathematics or science entrance requirements, which discourages students from taking a computer science courses in secondary education —even if they count as a high school graduation requirement. Aligning these policies would incentivize students to explore computer science earlier, which is an important step in increasing diversity in the field. State leaders should work with institutions of higher education to ensure credit and articulation policies align with secondary school graduation requirements. Alternatively, higher education institutions could adopt policies that recommend students, particularly those planning on majoring in STEM fields, take computer science in high school.

7. Most high schools don’t offer computer science courses because states or local school districts have not prioritized this discipline. Underrepresented minority students are less likely to attend a school that offers computer science. Given the important role computer science plays in our economy and the world around us, ensuring all students have access to computer science in K-12 is critical. This should start early by embedding computer science in the K-5 curriculum, which could steer students toward computer science courses in middle and high school. At the high school level, Michigan should adopt policies that require schools to at least offer a computer science course based on rigorous standards to students, whether an online course or an in-person course. This policy can’t—and shouldn’t—happen overnight; rather, schools and state education authorities should be given a five-year window to effectively plan and implement the provision of computer science to all secondary students.

8. Computer science courses have mostly existed only in secondary education or Career and Technical Education programs and have not been an integral part of a state’s education priorities for all students. Making computer science a fundamental part of a state’s system of education means adding an entirely “new” subject to most states. States will need to create roadmaps to address a number of policy and implementation issues to integrate computer science as a new subject into its existing system. The plan should articulate the goals for computer science, strategies for accomplishing the goals, and timelines for carrying out the strategies. Funding access to K-12 computer science must be at the foundation of a state’s plan. The foundational policies that should be part of a plan should include, at a minimum, full K-12 standards, a set plan to enable all high schools in the state to offer at least one computer science course, and funding sources for computer science professional learning and course support.

Counter-arguments:

What are three reasonable arguments against this proposal?

1. Interest in computer science is skyrocketing across the nation, but the lack of instruction will be a hurdle that schools nationwide will have to clear if the U.S. wants to remain a tech innovation hub. Teachers will not suddenly be equipped with the knowledge, expertise and capability to each this course at a grade school level. This will be a hurdle that Michigan will have to overcome, and that I have attempted to address by having one section dedicated to it in my plan.

2. My first consultation brought up a great counter-argument, which has to do with funding. There has to be some sort of funding allocated with new computer science programs/initiatives created, and given the current state of Michigan’s Education System, state budgets are very limited and the state government/legislation is strict about how budget is distributed.

3. Given the current core requirements for graduation, making computer science a core requirement would have to happen at the expense of another class/current core requirement. It is tough to rule out any current core requirement as less important or not needed, therefore it is tough to create a proposal that suddenly makes computer science a core requirement as well.

Costs and funding:

What will your proposal cost (in direct expenses, lost tax revenue, lost economic opportunity, and/or non-monetary costs)? How will you pay for your proposed legislation? Where will/could the funding for your proposal come from?  Who might object to dedicating resources to your proposal (competing interests)?  

The computer science teacher shortage should be addressed by exposing more pre-service teachers to computer science during their required coursework or by creating specific pathways for computer science teachers. Students preparing to be mathematics, science or broader technology teachers could become computer science teachers in many states if they were exposed to relatively minimal computer science coursework within teacher preparation programs. To meet this goal, states could create scholarship programs for pre-service teachers to take computer science courses as part of the teacher preparation pathway. Further, states could create funding incentives for pre-service education programs to create pathways in computer science education. Finally, with reforms to state certification programs for computer science teachers, states should expand computer science preparation programs at schools of education. In addition, to address equity concerns, states should fund partnership opportunities between local school districts and schools of education to create direct pathways for teachers into high-need school districts. Cost and funding will mainly be required with additional certification requirements for teachers – for rigorous computer science teacher professional learning and course support. Additional funding insight will follow after I complete an additional consultation that is scheduled for Friday, April 7th.

 

References:

These can include websites or other information you have found about the issue.

https://blogs.microsoft.com/chicago/2016/02/25/chicago-public-schools-announces-computer-science-as-graduation-requirement/

http://ilga.gov/legislation/BillStatus.asp?GA=100&DocTypeID=HB&DocNum=3695&GAID=12&SessionID=85&LegID=77115

https://code.org/advocacy/state-facts/MI.pdf

https://code.org/files/Making_CS_Fundamental.pdf

http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2017/03/31/high-school-graduation-requirements-michigan/99861870/

http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/billstatus.asp?DocNum=5720&GAID=13&GA=99&DocTypeID=HB&LegID=95174&SessionID=88

https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2016/01/30/computer-science-all

https://thinkprogress.org/new-york-wants-to-make-computer-science-mandatory-but-whos-going-to-teach-it-685d824c35bf

 

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Total votes: 24

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